La Dulcamara

Diffusa nei terreni umidi di tutta Italia, fino a un’altitudine di circa 2000 metri, la Dulcamara (Solanum dulcamara) è un arbusto rampicante appartenente alla famiglia delle Solonaceae.
All’aspetto presenta un fusto legnoso e ricadente, foglie picciolate e fiori di colore violetto con stami gialli che sbocciano tra giugno e settembre. Il frutto è una bacca rossa, ovoidale. Il sapore è dolce, con un retrogusto amaro, qualità da cui deriva il nome stesso della pianta (“dolce amaro”). L’odore è aromatico.
Già piuttosto nota nell’antichità per le sue virtù lassative, la dulcamara acquisì vera fama nel Medioevo, quando se ne scoprirono le proprietà cosmetiche.


Dulcamara: Principi Attivi e Proprietà Terapeutiche

Costituenti della dulcamara sono glucidi, gluco-alcaloidi e saponine. Nelle pratiche farmacologiche, vengono impiegati il succo fresco, la corteccia di esemplari giovani e le foglie, che vanno essiccate al sole.
La dulcamara possiede proprietà depurative, diuretiche, diaforetiche, sudorifere e lassative. Essa viene dunque impiegata come rimedio contro patologie come artrite, ascessi, dermatosi, herpes, macchie della pelle, reumatismi e acne.
Utilizzata largamente come cura primaverile grazie alle sue virtù depurative, la dulcamara è però una pianta potenzialmente pericolosa: a causa degli alcaloidi in essa contenuti, in dosi eccessive diviene un veleno mortale.


Dulcamara: Decotti

Contro i dolori reumatici e le patologie di stagione può essere utile un decotto a base di dulcamara. Per prepararlo, mettete a bollire in 1 litro di acqua circa 20 grammi di ramoscelli essiccati. Trascorsi trenta minuti, togliete dal fuoco e fate riposare per qualche ora. Infine filtrate e assumetene non più di quattro tazzine al giorno, fino alla completa scomparsa dei sintomi.
Un secondo decotto a base di dulcamara vi sarà utile come cura depurativa e come rimedio emolliente. In 1 litro di acqua fate bollire 20 grammi di foglie essiccate. Dopo un quarto d’ora, spegnete il fuoco, fate riposare e filtrate. Bevetene due tazzine prima dei pasti per tre settimane.

Come già ricordato la pianta di dulcamara, assunta in dosi eccessive, diviene tossica e può causare crampi, diarrea, vomito e problemi alla respirazione. Pertanto è consigliato consultare il proprio medico di fiducia prima di dare inizio alla terapia.

 



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